Predicting the activity of solar flares is of great significance for studying its physical mechanism and the impact on human production and life. Problems such as class imbalance, high time-series sensitivity, and over-localization of important features exist in the sample data used for flare forecasting. We design a solar flare fusion method based on resampling and the CNN-GRU algorithm to try to solve the above problems. In order to verify the effectiveness of this fusion method, first, we compared the forecast performance of different resampling methods by keeping the forecast model unchanged. Then, we used the resampling algorithm with high performance to combine some single forecast models and fusion forecast models respectively. We use the 2010–2017 sunspot data set to train and test the performance of the flare model in predicting flare events in the next 48 h. Through the conclusion of the above steps, we prove that the resampling method SMOTE and its variant SMOTE-ENN are more advantageous in class imbalance problem of flare samples. In addition, after the fusion of one-dimensional convolution and recurrent network with “forget-gate”, combined with the SMOTEENN to achieve TSS = 61%, HSS = 61%, TPRate = 77% and TNRate = 83%. This proves that the fusion model based on resampling and the CNN-GRU algorithm is more suitable for solar flare forecasting.
(Sun:) sunspots – Sun: flares – Sun: X-rays – gamma-rays – Sun: magnetic fields – Sun: corona
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