Vol 23, No 9

Physical and Kinematical Characteristics of Wolf–Rayet Central Stars and their Host Planetary Nebulae

Z. Awad and A. Ali


We address the physical and kinematical properties of Wolf–Rayet [WR] central stars (CSs) and their host planetary nebulae (PNe). The studied sample comprises all [WR] CSs that are currently known. The analysis is based on recent observations of the parallax, proper motion, and color index of [WR] CSs from the Gaia space mission's early third release (eDR3) catalog, as well as common nebular characteristics. The results revealed an evolutionary sequence, in terms of decreasing Teff, from the early hot [WO 1] to the late cold [WC 12] stars. This evolutionary sequence extends beyond [WR] CS temperature and luminosity to additional CS and nebular characteristics. The statistical analysis shows that the mean final stellar mass and evolutionary age of the [WR] CS sample are 0.595 ± 0.13 M and 9449 ± 2437 yr, respectively, with a mean nebular dynamical age of 7270 ± 1380 yr. In addition, we recognize that the color of the majority (∼85%) of [WR] CSs tends to be red rather than their genuine blue color. The analysis indicates that two-thirds of the apparent red color of most [WR]s is attributed to the interstellar extinction whereas the other one-third is due to the PN self-extinction effect.


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