A Pre-explosion Effervescent Zone for the Circumstellar Material in SN 2023ixf

Noam Soker


I present the effervescent zone model to account for the compact dense circumstellar material (CSM) around the progenitor of the core collapse supernova (CCSN) SN 2023ixf. The effervescent zone is composed of bound dense clumps that are lifted by stellar pulsation and envelope convection to distances of ≈tens × au, and then fall back. The dense clumps provide most of the compact CSM mass and exist alongside the regular (escaping) wind. I crudely estimate that for a compact CSM within RCSM ≈ 30 au that contains MCSM ≈ 0.01 M, the density of each clump is kb ≳ 3000 times the density of the regular wind at the same radius and that the total volume filling factor of the clumps is several percent. The clumps might cover only a small fraction of the CCSN photosphere in the first days post-explosion, accounting for the lack of strong narrow absorption lines. The long-lived effervescent zone is compatible with no evidence for outbursts in the years prior to the SN 2023ixf explosion and the large-amplitude pulsations of its progenitor, and it is an alternative to the CSM scenario of several-years-long high mass loss rate wind.


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