Mass Distribution of Black Holes with Effects of Convective Carbon Shell Burning on Pair-instability Pulsation and Fe Core Collapse

Wenyu Xin, Ken'ichi Nomoto, Gang Zhao and Xianfei Zhang


Motivated by the determination of black hole masses with gravitational-wave observations, we calculate the evolution of massive stars through presupernova stages and obtain the mass distribution of black holes. In the first part, we calculate the evolution of He stars with masses of 30–120 M. We study in detail how convective carbon shell burning controls pair-instability pulsations before and during oxygen burning and determine their final fates. In the second part, we calculate the evolution of H-rich stars with initial masses of 13–80 M until Fe core collapse and obtain the possible black hole mass range by applying the criterion of the compactness parameters. From these models, we predict the mass distribution of black holes for stars that undergo Fe core collapse and pair-instability pulsation. The predicted masses for black holes range from 4.2 to 46 M, which are consistent with the gravitational-wave observations.


: gravitational waves – stars: black holes – stars: evolution – stars: massive – (stars:) supernovae: general

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