Abstract During the lifetime of AR 12673, its magnetic field evolved drastically and produced numerous large flares. In this study, using full maps of the Sun observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, we identified that AR 12673 emerged in decayed AR 12665, which had survived for two solar rotations. Although both ARs emerged at the same location, they possessed different characteristics and different flare productivities. Therefore, it is important to study the long-term magnetic evolution of both ARs to identify the distinguishing characteristics of an AR that can produce large solar flares. We used the Space-weather Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Active Region Patch data to investigate the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field and other physical properties of the recurring ARs during five Carrington rotations. All these investigated parameters dynamically evolved through a series of solar rotations. We compared the long-term evolution of AR 12665 and AR 12673 to understand the differences in their flare-producing properties. We also studied the relation of the long-term evolution of these ARs with the presence of active longitude. We found that the magnetic flux and complexity of AR 12673 developed much faster than those of AR 12665. Our results confirmed that a strong emerging flux that emerged in the pre-existing AR near the active longitude created a very strong and complex AR that produced large flares.
Keywords Sun: general — Sun: flares — Sun: activity — Sun: magnetic fields — Sun: sunspot — Sun: photosphere
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