Abstract It is surprising to find an instance of migration in the peak positions of synchrotron spectral energy distribution components during the activity epochs of Markarian 421 (Mrk 421), accompanying an orphan flare at the X-ray and GeV-TeV γ-ray bands. A geometric interpretation and standard shock or stochastic acceleration models of blazar emission have difficulty reproducing these observed behaviors. The present paper introduces a linear acceleration by integrating the reconnection electric field into the particle transport model for the observed behaviors of Mrk 421. We note that strong evidence for evolution in characteristic of multi-wavelength spectral energy distribution including shifting the peak frequency, accompanying an orphan flare at the X-ray and GeV-TeV γ-ray bands provides an important electrostatic acceleration diagnostic in a blazar jet. Assuming suitable model parameters, we apply the results of the simulation to the 13-day flaring event in March 2010 of Mrk 421, concentrating on the evolution of multi-wavelength spectral energy distribution characteristic by shifting the peak frequency. It is clear that the ratio of the electric field and magnetic field strength plays an important role in temporal evolution of the peak frequency of synchrotron spectral energy distribution component. We suggest it is reasonable that the electrostatic acceleration is responsible for the evolution of multi-wavelength spectral energy distribution characteristic by shifting the peak frequency. Based on the model results, we assert that the peak frequency of the synchrotron spectral energy distribution component may signify a temporary characteristic of blazars, rather than a permanent one.
Keywords radiation mechanisms: non-thermal — BL Lacertae objects: individual: (Mrk 421) — acceleration of particles
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