Abstract On 2017 September 10, a fast coronal mass ejection (CME) erupted from the active region (AR) 12673, leading to a ground level enhancement (GLE) event at Earth. Using the 2D improved Particle Acceleration and Transport in the Heliosphere (iPATH) model, we model the large solar energetic particle (SEP) event of 2017 September 10 observed at Earth, Mars and STEREO-A. Based on observational evidence, we assume that the CME-driven shock experienced a large lateral expansion shortly after the eruption, which is modeled by a double Gaussian velocity profile in this simulation. We apply the in-situ shock arrival times and the observed CME speeds at multiple spacecraft near Earth and Mars as constraints to adjust the input model parameters. The modeled time intensity profiles and fluence for energetic protons are then compared with observations. Reasonable agreements with observations at Mars and STEREO-A are found. The simulated results at Earth differ from observations of GOES-15. However, the simulated results at a heliocentric longitude 20◦ west to Earth fit reasonably well with the GOES observation. This can be explained if the pre-event solar wind magnetic field at Earth is not described by a nominal Parker field. Our results suggest that a large lateral expansion of the CME-driven shock and a distorted interplanetary magnetic field due to previous events can be important in understanding this GLE event.
Keywords Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs) —Sun: magnetic fields— Sun: particle emission
It accepts original submissions from all over the world and is internationally published and distributed by IOP