Vol 21, No 11 (2021) / Nazri

X-ray source population in the polar ring galaxy NGC 660 as observed by Chandra

Nurnabilah Nazri, Adlyka Annuar

Abstract

We present Chandra observations of the nearby polar ring galaxy NGC 660 to study its X-ray source population. Based on our analysis, we detected a total of 23 X-ray sources in the 0.5−8 keV band, with luminosities ranging from ∼1037 to ∼1039 erg s−1. Twenty-two of these sources are located offnuclear and have luminosities below the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) threshold value of L0.5−8 keV < 1039 erg s−1, suggesting that they are likely to be X-ray binary (XRB) candidates. The remaining source is located at the center of the galaxy, suggesting it is an active galactic nucleus (AGN). However, we estimated that four of the detected sources could be associated with background objects. Based on the source count rates in each of the Chandra observations, we found evidence for variability in nine of the 23 sources, including the AGN. However, further investigation with spectral analysis suggested no significant differences in the AGN luminosities between the observations. The X-ray luminosity distribution of the galaxy was found to be generally lower than that expected from previous studies on star forming and collisional ring galaxies. No ULX was also detected in the galaxy, in contrast with what was expected from the galaxy’s SFR and metallicity (i.e., SFR = 14.43 ± 0.19 \(M_{\odot}\) yr−1 and \(Z = 0.94 \pm 0.01 Z_{\odot}\), respectively). These results suggest a deficit in the X-ray sources detected. Based on source hardness ratio distribution, we found evidence that the fainter sources have a harder source spectrum, indicating higher absorption. This further suggests that there could be more X-ray sources that were not detected in the galaxy due to significant obscuration.

 

Keywords


Galaxies: individual: NGC 660 — X-rays: individual: NGC 660 — Galaxies: active

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1674-4527/21/11/289

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