Vol 21, No 11 (2021) / Baan

Fallback in bipolar planetary nebulae?

Willem A. Baan, Hiroshi Imai, Gabor Orosz


The subclass of bipolar Planetary Nebulae (PNe) exhibits well-defined low-power outflows and some shows shock-related equatorial spiderweb structures and hourglass structures surrounding these outflows. These structures are distinctly different from the phenomena associated with spherical and elliptical PNe and suggest a non-standard way to simultaneously energise both kinds of structures. This paper presents evidence from the published literature on bipolar PN Hb 12 and other sources in support of an alternative scenario for energising these structures by means of accretion from material shells deposited during earlier post-AGB and pre-PNe evolutionary stages. In addition to energising the bipolar outflow, a sub-Eddington accretion scenario could hydrodynamically explain the spiderweb and outer hourglass structures as oblique shockwaves for guiding the accreting material into the equatorial region of the source. Estimates of the accretion rate resulting from fallback-related spherical accretion could indeed help to drive a low-power outflow and contribute to the total luminosity of these sources.


ISM: planetary nebulae: general — ISM: planetary nebulae: individual Hb 12, Hen 2-104, MyCn 18 — ISM: jets and outflows — stars: evolution

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1674-4527/21/11/275


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