Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

12CO emission from the Red Rectangle

Tuan-Anh Pham, Ngoc Diep Pham, Thi Hoai Do, Tuyet Nhung Pham, Thi Phuong Nguyen, Thi Thao Nguyen, Pierre Darriulat


Observations of an unprecedented quality made by ALMA on the Red Rectangle of CO(3–2) and CO(6–5) emissions are analysed jointly with the aim of obtaining as simple as possible a description of the gas morphology and kinematics. Evidence is found for polar conical outflows and for a broad equatorial torus in rotation and expansion. Simple models of both are proposed. Comparing CO(6–5) and CO(3–2) emissions provides evidence for a strong temperature enhancement over the polar outflows. Continuum emission (dust) is seen to be enhanced in the equatorial region. Observed asymmetries are briefly discussed.


stars: AGB and post-AGB — circumstellar matter — radio-lines: stars — planetary nebulae: individual (Red Rectangle)

Full Text:




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Print ISSN: 1674-4527

Online ISSN: 2397-6209